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一、How are these virtual spaces being leveraged by businesses to gain competitive advantage?企业如何利用这些虚拟空间来获得竞争优势?

The metaverse is a vision for the future of the world wide web, making our online interactions much closer to the three-dimensional sensory experiences we have in real life.We will not merely be looking at a screen or listening to a podcast or typing an email; we will be immersed in a virtual world, as if we were actors in a play or movie. We will bring not only our sight and hearing to these interactions but also, eventually, all our other senses: touch, taste and even smell.The metaverse will be a combination of virtual reality with sound and video, augmented by devices able to interact with our other senses.


The originsThis is a vision that has arisen from technology developments in different parts of applied computing。 First comes the world of computer games, which have become increasingly lifelike as technology has advanced, particularly in computer graphics and sound processing。Games technologies have in turn found application for training of military personnel, providing ever more realistic and immersive experiences of battle。 For example, two decades ago, the US Army selected the Institute for Creative Technologies at the University of Southern California as its main partner for the development of advanced simulation training programmes, on the basis of the university’s leading computing expertise and its famous film school。

Creating realistic and immersive computer training requires not only sophisticated tech skills, but also storytelling and media production capabilities。Another area of applied computing that has fed the development of the metaverse has been increasingly sophisticated business simulation modelling。 From telecommunications networks to factories, from financial markets to insurance, advanced scientific and business simulation has become widespread in industry and commerce, for applications such as modelling the potential impacts of climate change or understanding the robustness of supply chains。 Such complex simulation models now support real-time management systems for these applications。

起源这是应用计算不同额域的额发展所带来的愿景。额先是电脑游戏额,随着额的进步,额别是在电脑图形和声音处理方面web3.0MetaForce原力元宇宙,电脑游戏变得越来越逼真。游戏额转而应用于额事人员的训练,提供了更加真实和沉浸式的战斗体验。例如美军元宇宙计划美军元宇宙计划,20年前,美额陆额选择了南加州大学(University of Southern California)的创新额学院(Institute For Creative Technologies)作为额模拟训练项目开发的主要合作伙伴,该学院拥有额先的计算机额知识和额的电影学院。创造真实和沉浸式的计算机培训不额需要复杂的额技能,还需要讲故事和媒体制作能力。额动元额发展的另一个应用计算额域是日益复杂的商业模拟建模。从电信网络到工厂,从金融市场到额险,额的额和商业模拟在工业和商业中已经广泛应用,如为气候变化的潜在影响建模或理解供应链的健壮性。这种复杂的额真模型现在支持这些应用程序的实时管理系统。

Key playersThe widespread popularity of immersive games indicates that many people will find the vision of the metaverse compelling, and the world’s leading technology companies are currently investing heavily in its development.These companies include Meta (which changed its name from Facebook to indicate the company’s focus on the metaverse), Google and Microsoft, which became the world’s third largest video game company with its purchase in January 2022 of Activision Blizzard. Other tech companies likely to be active are Apple, Amazon, Baidu, Sony and Tencent.


Multiple challenge额efore the vision is realised, however, there are many challenges, both technical and commercial。 The first is that of technical standards and interoperability。 If different metaverse spaces are created, will it be easy for users to move between them? Will it be possible to take virtual possessions created or purchased in one space across to another? Will users have a single identity across different spaces?For spaces to share data or for users to move themselves or their assets between spaces will require common technical standards。

For example, Universal Scene Description (USD), originally developed by computer animation studio Pixar, has been proposed as a standard for describing scenes in virtual spaces, to enable exchange of graphics data between them。Secondly, to create realistic immersive experiences for users, developers of metaverse applications will need to store and access massively large databases and to process this data extremely quickly。 There are many computational challenges in undertaking these tasks。

Thirdly, being able to purchase items online and to move digital assets between different spaces will require the ability to store information and records of digital assets (such as electronic currency and non-fungible tokens) securely and in a tamper-proof way。 The use of blockchains and distributed ledgers is likely to play a part in meeting this challenge。


How it’s appliedAs our economic and social lives move online, many companies see the business potential for participation in the metaverse。 Manufacturers of luxury goods such as cars, for example, are considering selling virtual copies of their marques to players in online games, in order to monetise their brand presence online。Similarly, two global banks, JP Morgan and H额C, have recently purchased ‘land’ in the metaverse – ie virtual space on metaverse platforms – for undisclosed sums。 They plan to use these spaces to build their brand presence, to host events such as online conferences and as a venue for selected third-party developers to create applications of interest to their customers。

It is not only companies currently looking to position themselves for operations in the metaverse; some countries are, too。 They seek to do this in order to create a business-friendly regulatory environment for metaverse applications or for development of relevant commercial services, such as online dispute resolution and mediation。 For instance, Dubai’s new regulator for virtual assets has opened a MetaHQ in The Sandbox, a platform providing virtual space for metaverse applications。

它是如何应用的 随着我们的经济和社会生活转移到网上,许多公司看到了参与元额的商业潜力。例如,汽车等额品制造商正考虑在网络游戏中向玩家出售其额的虚拟复制品,以便将其额在网络上的存在感变现。同样,两家额球银行web3.0MetaForce原力元宇宙,JP摩根和汇丰银行web3.0MetaForce原力元宇宙web3.0MetaForce原力元宇宙,额近在元额中购买了“土地”——即元额平台上的虚拟空间——交易金额未披露。他们计划利用这些空间来建立自己的额形象,举办在线会议等活动,并作为选定的第三方开发人员创建客户感兴趣的应用程序的场所。目前web3.0MetaForce原力元宇宙,不额是公司希望在元额中开展业务;一些额家也是如此。它们寻求这样做是为了为元额应用程序或相关商业服务(如在线争端解决和调解)的开发创建一个对业务友好的监管环境。例如,迪拜虚拟资产的新监管机构在沙盒(The Sandbox)中开设了一个MetaHQ,该平台为元额应用程序提供虚拟空间。

The accountant’s challengeThese new applications create interesting commercial challenges for accounting and financial professionals: How do we value digital assets such as ‘land’ on the metaverse? Value often arises from scarcity but the online world is infinite – at least in principle.How can we verify identity in this online world, when photographs, videos and voiceprints can all be digitally altered or corrupted? Verification of identity and authentication of instructions will require new systems and business processes, probably involving cryptographic technologies.The grand vision of the metaverse and the many challenges that must be addressed in order to achieve it make this an exciting place to be!


二、Multiple-choice questions单选题

·1 How might blockchain technology support the development of the metaverse?A It enables faster transfer of data B It enables open access to dataC It compresses files, enabling more data to be storedD It can be used to store information and records of digital assets


· 2What is the name of a platform providing virtual space for metaverse applications?A The PlaygroundB The StudioC The WorkshopD The Sandbox


·3 In what way has the US Army used metaverse technology?A To allow personnel to communicate with their families when serving abroadB To develop a more efficient personnel deployment systemCTo run virtual recruitment daysDTo develop advanced simulation training programmes


·4 What does the metaverse aim to do?A Recreate users' brain patterns in order to participate in online game额 Provide a safe platform for the trading of cryptocurrenciesC Allow users to access the dark webD Facilitate an online three-dimensional sensory experience


·5 Which of the following is NOT an issue for accountants dealing with the metaverse?A Verification of identity is harder in the online worldB The online world is infinite, which could affect the value of assetsC Intangible assets in the online world cannot be accounted forD The valuation of digital assets is unclear